Publications

Source: Orange County Business Journal (Innovator of the Year Award nomination 2018)

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Source: Cancer Center, UC Irvine (Moving Bioelectronic Sensors of Urinary Cancer Biomarkers from the Bench to the Clinic)

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Source: NIH, NCI (Monitoring Recurrent Bladder Cancer with Electro-Phage Biosensors)

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Source: NSF (The Impedance-Transduced BioResistor (ITBR): A Biosensor Architecture for the Rapid, Sensitive, and Label-Free Quantitation of Proteins)

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DJ-1, a 20.7 kDa protein, is overexpressed in people who have bladder cancer (BC). Its elevated concentration in urine allows it to serve as a marker for BC. But no biosensor for the detection of DJ-1 has been demonstrated. Here, we describe a virus bioresistor (VBR) capable of detecting DJ-1 in urine at a concentration of 10 pM in one minute. The VBR consists of a pair of millimeter-scale gold electrodes that measure the electrical impedance of an ultra-thin (≈150-200 nm), two-layer polymeric channel. The top layer of this channel (90-105 nm in thickness) consists of an electrodeposited virus-PEDOT (PEDOT is poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) composite containing embedded M13 virus particles that are engineered to recognize and bind to the target protein of interest, DJ-1. The bottom layer consists of spin-coated PEDOT-PSS (poly(styrene sulfonate)). Together, these two layers constitute a current divider. We demonstrate here that reducing the thickness of the bottom PEDOT-PSS layer increases its resistance, and concentrates the resistance drop of the channel in the top virus-PEDOT layer, thereby increasing the sensitivity of the VBR and enabling the detection of DJ-1. Large signal amplitudes coupled with the inherent simplicity of the VBR sensor design results in high signal-to-noise (S/N > 100) and excellent sensor-to-sensor reproducibility characterized by coefficients of variation in the range of 3-7% across the DJ-1 binding curve down to a concentration of 30 pM, near the 10 pM limit of detection (LOD), encompassing four orders of magnitude in concentration.

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Bhasin, A., Sanders, E.C., Ziegler, J.M., Briggs, J.S., Drago, N.P., Attar, A.M., Santos, A.M., True, M.Y., Ogata, A.F., Yoon, D.V., Majumdar, S., Wheat, A.J., Patterson, S.V., Weiss, G.A., Penner, R.M. (2020). A Virus BioResistor (VBR) for the Detection of the Bladder Cancer Marker DJ-1 in Urine at 10 pM in One Minute. ACS.

Attar, A.M., Richardson, M.B., Speciale, G., Majumdar, S., Dyer, R.P., Sanders, E.C., Penner, R.M., Weiss, G.A. (2018). Electrochemical Quantification of Glycated and Non-glycated Human Serum Albumin in Synthetic Urine. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 11: 4757-4765.

Bhasin, A., Ogata, A., Briggs, J.S., Tam, P.Y., Weiss, G.A., Penner, R.M. (2018). The Virus Bioresistor: Wiring Virus Particles for the Direct, Label-Free Detection of Target Proteins. Nano Lett. 18: 3623-3629.

Ogata, A., Edgar, J.M., Majumdar, S., Briggs, J.S., Patterson, S., Tan, M.X., Kudlacek, S.T., Schneider, C.A., Weiss, G.A., Penner, R.M. (2017). A virus-enabled biosensor for human serum albumin. Anal. Chem. 89: 1373-1381.

Mohan, K., Weiss, G.A. (2016). Chemically modifying viruses for diverse applications. ACS Chem. Biol. 11: 1167-1169.

Mohan, K., Weiss, G.A. (2015). Engineering chemically modified viruses for prostate cancer cell recognition. Mol. Biosyst. 11: 3264-3272. This article is part of themed collection: Chemical Biology in Molecular BioSystems and 2015 Hot Articles in Molecular BioSystems. 

Mohan, K., Penner, R.M., Weiss, G.A. (2015). Biosensing with virus electrode hybrids. Curr. Protoc. Chem. Biol. 7: 53-72. 

Mohan, K., Donavan, K.C., Arter, J.A., Penner, R.M., Weiss, G.A. (2013). Sub-nanomolar detection of prostate specific membrane antigen in synthetic urine by synergistic dual, ligand phage. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 135: 7761-7767.

Arter, J.A., Diaz, J.E., Donavan, K.C., Yuan, T.Z., Penner, R.M., Weiss, G.A. (2012). Virus-polymer hybrid nanowires tailored to detect prostate-specific membrane antigen. Anal. Chem. 84: 2776-2783. 

Donavan, K.C., Arter, J.A., Weiss, G.A., Penner, R.M. (2012). Virus-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) biocomposite films. Langmuir 28: 12581-12587.

Donavan, K., Arter, J.A., Pilolli, R., Cioffi, N., Weiss, G.A., Penner, R.M. (2011). Virus-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite films for impedance-based biosensing. Anal. Chem. 83: 2420-2424.

Arter, J.A., Taggart, D.K., McIntire, T.M., Penner, R.M., Weiss, G.A. (2010). Virus-PEDOT nanowires for biosensing.  Nano Lett. 10: 4858-4862.

Weiss, G.A., Penner, R.M. (2008). The promise of phage display: Customized Affinity and Specificity. Anal. Chem. 80: 3082-3089.

Li-Mei C. Yang, Juan E. Diaz, Theresa M. McIntire, Gregory A. Weiss* and Reginald M. Penner* (2008). Direct electrical transduction of antibody binding to a covalent virus layer using electrochemical impedance. Anal. Chem. 80: 5695-5705. 

Yang, L.-M.C., Diaz, J.E., McIntire, T.M., Weiss, G.A., Penner, R.M. (2008). Covalent virus layers for mass-based detection. Anal. Chem. 80: 933-943.

Diaz, J.E., Yang, L.-M.C., Lamboy, J.A., Penner, R.M., Weiss, G.A. (2008). Synthesis of a virus electrode for measurement of prostate specific membrane antigen. Methods Mol. Biol. 504: 255-274. 

Yang, L.-M.C., Tam, P.Y., Murray, B.J., McIntire, T.M., Overstreet, C.M., Weiss, G.A., Penner, R.M. (2006). Virus electrodes for universal biodetection. Anal. Chem. 78: 3265-3270. Featured on the journal cover.

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